LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
activities provide a continuum of learning.
A continuum of learning is a series of events linked for the purpose of
improving a learner's knowledge.
The learning unit is designed specifically for this task.
It is a guide for the teacher to determine what it is the learner knows
(links to previous knowledge) and what the expected performance is for the
learner (See Figure ). Thus far we
have determined the relationship between technology and the learning
environment, learning standards, and content knowledge.
At this stage you will determine how the content knowledge will be
learned and objectives met by the student using technology.
CONCEPTS AND EXAMPLES
Instruction and Learning
To clarify the purpose
of using different content knowledge objective statements to signify the
learning that is taking place, the concept that there is a progression to
teacher facilitated instruction and a continuum of student learning is
introduced. (See Figure )
initiating activity signifies the beginning or “initiation” of learning.
For the student, this event separates one learning unit from the other and sets
the stage for learning. The learners become aware of the topic and how
they are about to be engaged. The guided learning activity(s)
has the student progress towards practicing knowledge learned during the
initiating activity. The culminating performance facilitates the
student’s application of knowledge and skills. The excitement of the
process is seeing the student progress from learning to actually doing.
Future chapters will expand on this process.
Connecting Content Knowledge and Instruction
The next step is to
clarify the connection between writing content knowledge statements and
designing instruction. Thus far declarative, procedural, and conditional
statements have been reviewed and the reader has had an opportunity to practice
writing these statements. The reader has been introduced to the concept of
a progression to instruction. Now we make the direct connection between
content knowledge and instruction with the Figure .
Figure . Connecting Content Knowledge and the Progression of Instruction
The connections illustrated in above Figure should not be considered "law", but rather a rule of thumb for now. As experience with developing content knowledge increases and familiarity with the concept of a progression for instruction grows you will see the lines between these connections begin to gray, meaning that declarative statement most certainly can be used in the guided learning and culminating performance learning activities. Figure 8 illustrates the transitioning from content knowledge analysis to progression of instruction for the teacher to the development of a continuum of learning for the student.
8. Continuum of Learning
Figure. Learning Activity Design with Technology
initiating activity has the primary purpose of introducing the unit to the
learners and “linking” the upcoming content to prior knowledge.
Initiating activities should provide; active participation of the learners, link
to prior knowledge, and bridge to the guided learning activity and the next
general, the initiating activity is an introduction to what is going to be
learned, is based primarily on the declarative content knowledge statements, and
typically employs the presentation and demonstration instructional approaches.
Creating the Initiating Activity
First, match the activity (in this case the
initiating activity) with the appropriate content knowledge.
Second, match the instructional
with the learning activity and the content knowledge.
this step the reader can begin to think about what technologies are available to
him and what technology supports the instructional approaches.
Third, design the activity and applying
The reader, as teacher, creates the following activity using content that may have been obtained from an existing syllabus or from the resource mentioned in Step 1.
Fourth, consider what assessment(s) you
the reader has not actually practiced creating assessment in this text thus far,
it is expected that there has been some training in pre-service courses.
Basic examples are created here with a more in-depth discussion taking place in
the next chapter.
learning has the primary purpose of building upon the initiating activity's
introduction of fundamental knowledge. Students are “guided” through
the application of knowledge and skills that have been presented or demonstrated
in the initiating or guided learning activity.
content analysis and the learning standards that have been identified determine
appropriate content. They are also the basis for selecting the most
effective instructional approaches for the facilitation of learning (i.e.
problem solving, cooperative learning, simulation).
this point the student in the classroom begins to practice application of
knowledge and develop skill. Typically procedural content knowledge is
taught at this point, using the cooperative learning, discussion, instructional
games, possibly simulation, and discovery instructional approaches. The
text will continue to use the World History: Modern World: Post Cold War and the
End of Communism example learning unit used to develop the initiating activity.
Guided Learning Activity
the four steps to creating a learning activty. The end result is a guided
learning activity that is based on the content knowledge to be learned by the
students, standards are integrated, technology is integrated, and assessments
are more effectively designed and applied.
match the activity (in this case the guided learning activity) with the appropriate content knowledge.
match the instructional approaches with the guided learning activity and the content knowledge.
Notes: Notice only the appropriate and most effective instructional approaches from Figures above were chosen to be used for this activity. You will not use all of the approaches in every activity.
At this step the reader can begin to think about what technologies are available to him and what technology supports the instructional approaches. See Figures above for assistance!
design the activity.
consider what assessment(s) you may use.
This serves only as an example of how one guided learning activity of one learning unit could be created. We are going to move on to an example of culminating performance, but in reality the teacher may create multiple and extended guided learning activities. The teacher should apply what is shown here as a guide to develop what is most appropriate for his classroom.
this stage the students are expected to apply the knowledge and skills that were
presented and demonstrated during the initiating activity and practiced through
guided learning. Student learning at this stage relies heavily on;
decision making, experimental inquiry, solving a problem, invention,
investigation, and are project/product centered.
best case scenario is for the student to have the opportunity to practice in a
real setting, otherwise mock simulations should be developed. Conditional
and procedural content knowledge drives the use of simulation and actual
application instructional approaches.
Creating the Culminating Performance Activity
match the activity (in this case the culminating performance activity) with the appropriate content knowledge.
match the instructional approaches with the culminating performance activity and the content knowledge.
design the activity.
consider what assessment(s) you may use.
Typically, there will be only one culminating performance, although the activity may take place over multiple days. This is in contrast to the initiating and guided learning activities that may be shorter in length, multiple in number, and the format used multiple times for one learning unit.